Contents

  1. Purpose.
  2. International initiatives on E&L.
    1. WIPO Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights (SCCR)
      1. Questionnaire on Limitations and Exceptions.
      2. Exceptions and Limits to Copyright and Neighboring Rights.
      3. Automated Rights Management Systems.
      4. Digital Environment
      5. Educational Activities for Asia and Australia.
      6. Educational Activities in North America, Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia and Israel
      7. Educational Purposes in the Arab Countries.
      8. Educational and Research Activities in Latin America and the Caribbean.
      9. Teaching in Africa.
      10. Libraries and Archives.
      11. Visually Impaired.

Purpose

In order to maintain an appropriate balance between the interests of authors and publishers and users of protected works, copyright laws allow certain exceptions and limitations on economic rights, allowing protected works to be used without the authorisation of the rightholder and with or without payment of compensation. Limitations and exceptions to copyright and related rights vary from country to country due to particular social, economic and historical conditions. International treaties acknowledge this diversity by providing general conditions for the application of exceptions and limitations and leaving to national legislators to decide if a particular exception or limitation is to be applied and, if it is the case, to determine its exact scope.

IFRRO drafted an overview of legislation and models of operation of RROs in relation to education and educational establishments worldwide. Information provided by IFRRO to five researchers commissioned by WIPO to conduct a study on exceptions and limitations to the exclusive rights in relation to education (August 2009; available here: http://www.ifrro.org/content/ifrro-studies-%E2%80%93-exceptions-and-limitations).

International initiatives on E&L

WIPO Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights (SCCR)

Limitations and exceptions is an issue considered by the WIPO Standing Committee for Copyright and Related Rights (SCCR; http://www.wipo.int/policy/en/sccr/); its debate has been focused mainly on activities in relation to exceptions and limitations.

WIPO has prepared or commissioned a number of studies mapping different limitations and exceptions in many different countries (available here: http://www.wipo.int/copyright/en/limitations/):

Questionnaire on Limitations and Exceptions

Exceptions and Limits to Copyright and Neighboring Rights

Automated Rights Management Systems

Digital Environment

Educational Activities for Asia and Australia

Educational Activities in North America, Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia and Israel

Educational Purposes in the Arab Countries

Educational and Research Activities in Latin America and the Caribbean

Teaching in Africa

Libraries and Archives

Visually Impaired