Types of models
In respect of reprographic uses and similar reproductions of text and image works, including for the use in education, different models are applied worldwide, all aiming at serving the same purpose: provide users with the authorisation to legally access and use copyright works, while ensuring that remuneration is paid to the authors and publishers for the use, when appropriate.
The models of operation vary from those based on exclusive rights (voluntary collective licensing), which may be supported by legislation, for instance Extended Collective Licence (ECL), Compulsory Collective Management (CCM) such as the French out-of-commerce model, or a Legal Presumption, to legal licences, where the user is granted by law the authorisation to use also the work of authors and publishers who have not mandated the Collective Management Organisation (CMO), with an obligation to pay remuneration. The remuneration is, in some countries, on the basis of copyright levies.
In voluntary licensing schemes, with or without back up in legislation, governments may opt to sign a licensing agreement, covering all activities for which they are responsible. There are governments that have signed licensing agreements with Reproduction Rights Organisations (RROs; the collective organisations in the text and image sphere) that cover both copying in government administration, government-owned companies and government-owned educational institutions.
In a remuneration rights system for text and image works where the remuneration is based on levies, it may be through combined equipment and operator levies. The uses allowed comprise different types of uses, including class room uses, production of material for teaching purposes, professional or library uses, and other uses typically covered also by voluntary collective licensing, or by licensing agreements supported by ECL or CCM.